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# megathrust earthquake tsunami

Surprises with devastating consequences in past earthquake-tsunami sequences motivate a better understanding of the physical connections between subduction, earthquake dynamics and tsunami from genesis to inundation. A3(b) shows that the profile of the earthquake model fault is slightly smoother, without the very small variations in dip that are present along the subduction model fault. Maeda et al. For example, several recent modelling efforts related to the 2018 Sulawesi earthquake and tsunami, combining displacements from earthquakes and landsliding, underscore the importance of dual source mechanisms (e.g. For dynamically adaptive simulations, the parallel partitions that are assigned to each compute node may grow or shrink, as the mesh resolution is adapted. This approach also ensures self-consistency amongst initial conditions. We compare tsunamis sourced by two earthquake scenarios that differ only by their near-surface fault strength, which controls the propagation of slip to the trench and results in one blind and one surface-breaching rupture. Note: amaximum sea surface height at time (t). Megathrust earthquake only occur on a particular kind of fault. These methods are well-suited for hypothesis testing, such as isolating the influence of a single parameter on earthquake and tsunami behaviour. \mu ^\mathrm{{sc}} = \frac{V_c\mu _s^\mathrm{{sc}}+V\mu _d^\mathrm{{sc}}}{V_c+V}, In the second example presented in Section 4, we initialize the earthquake model according to information from a subduction model that extends the long-term geodynamic model of Gerya & Yuen (2007) to seismic cycles using seismo-thermomechanical models (van Dinther et al. 2020) following the SCEC/USGS Dynamic Rupture Code Verification exercises (Harris et al. To manage such data in massively parallel simulations, we use ASAGI (pArallel Server for Adaptive GeoInformation), an open-source library with a simple interface to access Cartesian material and geographic data sets (Rettenberger et al. Fig. In the context of an early warning system in Indonesia, complexity in space and time is achieved by including a grid of slip patches that together comprise a complex source model (Babeyko et al. 2012). The Sunda megathrust here is advanced in its seismic cycle and may be ready for another great 20 earthquake. The fault does not intersect with the surface, so the rupture is blind, but it efficiently generates a tsunami. \end{eqnarray}$$, The computational subduction model is 2-D and assumes plane-strain. Saito et al. In all scenarios, comparison with the tsunamis sourced by the time-dependent seafloor displacements, using only the time-independent displacements alters tsunami temporal behaviour, resulting in later tsunami arrival at the coast, but faster coastal inundation. Fig. We would like to thank the editorial team at GJI under Editor Prof Gabi Laske for handling this cross-disciplinary manuscript in such a careful and constructive way. However, seismic surface waves from an earthquake model may lead to spurious gravity waves in the tsunami shallow water approach. The Sunda megathrust can be divided into the Andaman Megathrust, Sumatra(n) Megathrust and Java(n) Megathrust. United states geological survey, m 8.4 - near the coast of southern peru. (2013) perform tsunami models of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake using tsunami-coupled equations of motion solved by the finite difference method (Maeda & Furumura 2011); these incorporate seismic waves and seafloor displacements generated from a 3-D kinematic earthquake source. Along the slice through the earthquake model fault, the average shear traction magnitude is 15.0 MPa, the minimum is 0.9 MPa and the maximum is 54.7 MPa. This is particularly challenging in complex fault systems with lithological and geometric heterogeneities (e.g. The last earthquake that occurred in this fault was on January 26, 1700, with an estimated 9.0 magnitude. Fig. (2011). From a hazards viewpoint, it is critical to remember that tsunamis are multiple waves that often arrive on shore for many hours after the initial wave. Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology. A 'megathrust' earthquake caused by a rupture along New Zealand's largest fault line is a question of 'when', not 'if' according to experts (pictured: graphic illustrating projected tsunami) 2 / 4 $$\begin{eqnarray} Computing resources were provided by the Institute of Geophysics of LMU Munich (Oeser et al. including online interactive materials, The M9 Cascadia Megathrust Earthquake of January 26, 1700. The narrower inland inundation corridor for the blind rupture reflects its lower maximum seafloor displacements. This ensures that they experience the same stress field and host the same on-fault properties. This is achieved by linking open-source earthquake and tsunami computational models that follow discontinuous Galerkin schemes and are facilitated by highly optimized parallel algorithms and software. Near the material contrast at 27 km depth, |$\mu _{s}^{\prime }$| and |$\mu _{d}^{\prime }$| are anomalously large due to interpolation inaccuracies near stark material contrasts (Fig. The scenarios presented here use mesh sizes of 13 million elements (Scenario C) and 16 million elements (scenarios A and B), which require computational resources well within the scope of typical applications for supercomputing centres or university clusters. They are linked using the integrated vertical surface velocity from the earthquake model to yield time- and space-dependent displacements to source the tsunami model, similar to methods by Saito et al. 2017). In this workflow, we remove trailing seismic waves and specifically surface waves with a space–time Fourier-transform based filter. \end{eqnarray}$$, Slip behaviour after failure is viscoplastic rate dependent. The resulting 3-D dynamic rupture is linked with the tsunami model through the time-dependent seafloor displacements, following the same methods as in the first two examples. 2007). Illustration of model components of the presented virtual laboratory for earthquake-tsunami modelling. For example, although the maximum fault strength is similar in all three scenarios presented here, the heterogeneous initial conditions for the subduction-initialized earthquake result in larger fault slip, but lower average dynamic stress drop and rupture velocity. great megathrust earthquakes using a series of numerical simulations of subduction and tsunamigenesis on the Sumatran forearc. 2016; Uphoff et al. 2019; Aránguiz et al. Use of a data-driven finite earthquake source model to determine seafloor initial conditions for the tsunami model is advantageous when trying to understand a specific event. (2017a) find that prisms that are more compliant than the surrounding material tend to slow earthquake rupture speeds, increase slip, and induce larger tsunamis. (a) Failure analysis according to the earthquake model failure criterion (eq. GPS Measures Deformation in Subduction Zones: Ocean/continent, GPS Measures Deformation in Subduction Zone: Island Arc Setting, Â» Ocean Bottom Seismograph Instrumentation Pool, Â» Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network, Â» Global Reporting Observatories in Chile, Sponsored by the National Science Foundation, Subduction zone tsunamis generated by megathrust earthquakes, are the most powerful earthquakes in the world, occur where two plates converge, particularly in subduction zones, reveal several different tsunami-producing behaviors, 1200 New York Avenue NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20005, 202-682-2220. 2011; Gabriel et al. Megathrust earthquakes rupture preferentially along flat (low-curvature) interfaces. The potentially surface-breaching rupture in the 2001 South Peru earthquake produced a tsunami with wave heights of 1.0–2.5 m at three different tide stations (USGS accessed 2019-07-22). 2020; Brizzi et al. 2019). The recorded extent and the sampling rate of the domain and time frame of the earthquake model must be high enough to represent the required wavelength and frequency bands. E H Madden, M Bader, J Behrens, Y van Dinther, A-A Gabriel, L Rannabauer, T Ulrich, C Uphoff, S Vater, I van Zelst, Linked 3-D modelling of megathrust earthquake-tsunami events: from subduction to tsunami run up, Geophysical Journal International, Volume 224, Issue 1, January 2021, Pages 487–516, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggaa484. However, the wave heights are asymmetric due to the uni-directional earthquake ruptures. At y = 150, the time-independent source produces a wave peak that is 1.3 m lower than for the time-dependent source, but the two wave peaks are in similar locations (Fig. However, incorporating these into tsunami modelling is not trivial. The displacements continue to change after this time in both scenarios until they reach constant values. The higher tsunami-generating efficiency of the blind rupture may explain how there are differences in earthquake characteristics between the scenarios, but similarities in tsunami inundation patterns. We hear a lot about the next Megathrust Earthquake, or ‘Big One’ that BC is due to experience. 9a). Tsunami generation from landslides is simulated well by established software (e.g. The unstructured output from the earthquake model is bilinearly interpolated to a structured mesh at a resolution of 1000 m. As previously done, we apply a space-time Fourier filter to Δb which is discussed in Section 5.1. The 1700 Cascadia earthquake occurred along the Cascadia subduction zone on January 26 with an estimated moment magnitude of 8.7–9.2. 2e). Although these initial conditions may be informed by laboratory and regional observations (e.g. The Bengkulu earthquake had slip restricted to below 10 km depth, with most slip occurring at 16–40 km depth and reaching a maximum of 6–7 m (Gusman et al. The linked initial conditions include a curved, blind fault geometry, heterogeneous fault stresses and strength, and spatially variable material properties. Recent modelling advances permit evaluation of the influence of 3-D earthquake dynamics on tsunami genesis, propagation, and coastal inundation. E.H.M., T.U. In nature, fast seismic surface waves at the elastic-acoustic interface are converted into infrasound or damped in the weakly compressible water column as the ocean response becomes non-hydrostatic at short wavelengths. We emphasize that these applications demonstrate the capabilities of the modelling framework; future, more involved and complex applications will certainly result in further knowledge gain. In terms of temporal resolution, we find that a 1 Hz sampling rate of the earthquake displacement field is sufficient, as it is much smaller than the typical temporal scale of a tsunami waves. Blind versus surface-breaching earthquake scenarios. 2012, 2014; Wollherr et al. Wendt et al. Here, we present and explore a virtual laboratory in which the tsunami source arises from 3-D coseismic seafloor displacements generated by a dynamic earthquake rupture model. 2019). First, we would like to thank the Volkswagen Foundation (VolkswagenStiftung) for extended funding and excellent support of the ASCETE and ASCETE II projects (www.ascete.de). This is also seen when comparing the tsunamis from the time-dependent sources from Scenario A versus Scenario B (Fig. To compare them, we equalize the times of first inundation: the time-independent source from the blind rupture in Scenario A is shifted by 40 s and the source from the surface-breaching rupture in Scenario B by 60 s. Figs 7(d) and (e) show the inundation corridors. 2018; Ulrich et al. Subduction-zone megathrust earthquakes, the most powerful earthquakes in the world, can produce tsunamis through a variety of structures that are missed by simple models including: fault boundary rupture, deformation of overlying plate, splay faults and landslides. (2019), these two points constitute the nucleation line on a 1-D fault that lead to a dynamic earthquake rupture. 2d). It is one of the most seismogenic structures on Earth, being responsible for many great and giant earthquakes, including the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that killed over 230,000 people. In this way, earthquake initial conditions are assigned self-consistently and the tsunami source reflects the conditions developed over long-term subduction and seismic cycling. We use a subduction model to initialize the earthquake model in Scenario C. This approach provides reasonable earthquake initial conditions that typically are poorly constrained by data, but which exert first-order control over rupture behaviour. This M8.7 Rat Islands earthquake was characterized by roughly 600 km of rupture. SeisSol is specifically suited to solve for rupture propagation along complex, 3-D fault geometries. The cross-section at y = 0 and t = 120 s in Fig. ASAGI automatically replicates or migrates the corresponding data tiles across compute nodes, which greatly simplifies the computing access to material or geographic data at a specific location. In both earthquakes, the average rupture velocity resembles a typical megathrust tsunamigenic earthquake, but not a slower ‘tsunami’ earthquake Kanamori (1972). Here we compare the linked scenarios against observed events, evaluating not only if a reasonable and/or realistic modelled tsunami is produced from a particular earthquake source, but also if that modelled earthquake is itself a reasonable/realistic event. (A) Near Umnak Island, Alaska, the Pacific Plate is subducting beneath North America at 70 mm/yr (arrow). Hasil monitoring BMKG menunjukkan bahwa zona megathrust selatan Jawa memang sangat aktif yang tampak dalam peta aktivitas kegempaannya (seismisitas). A megathrust earthquake is a very large earthquake that occurs in a subduction zone, a region where one of the earth's tectonic plates is thrust under another. Devastating because: high population + nuclear power plants, megathrust earthquakes have high magnitudes, often associated with Tsunami. Video will play in. Such TECSEAS models, bridging the time scales of tectonic (TEC) and seismic cycle (SEAS, Erickson et al. Okada 1985). 2019). The tsunami from the time-independent sources also over predict wave height at y = 0 km. Fig. We discuss linkage related to nucleation further in Section 5.2. Posted on January 28, 2013 December 12, 2013 by Admin. This includes ground motion, atmospheric, infrasonic, However, earthquake source imaging can suffer from inherent non-uniqueness (e.g. Use of time-independent instead of time-dependent filtered displacements in the tsunami source overpredicts wave peaks at y = 0, but underpredicts peaks away from this location. In the third scenario, the 3-D earthquake model is initialized using a seismo-thermo-mechanical geodynamic model simulating both subduction dynamics and seismic cycles. The subduction geometry (Fig. Orphan Tsunami: Megathrust earthquakes in the Pacific N.W. (2017)]. 2019b). The shallow sediments are always at plastic failure, but velocity strengthening allows continuous creep through time without nucleation of brittle failure. 2018; Gabriel et al. Fault (pink) is 400 km along strike. Direct studies of how subduction characteristics, earthquake initial conditions and earthquake dynamics govern tsunami behaviour can help understand hazard in a given subduction zone. Megathrust earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis that originate in subduction zones like Cascadia — Vancouver Island, Canada, to northern California — are some of the most severe natural disasters in the world. In general, the temporal characteristics are more distorted by the change to a time-independent source than the spatial characteristics, as may be expected. Reference material properties of the subduction model. We implement fault weakening in this model following the linear slip weakening friction law formulation proposed by Andrews (1976). Wendt et al. A constant velocity of 7.5 cm yr–1 is applied to a small box inside the subducting plate to initiate and sustain subduction. Around the Pacific Ocean is a horseshoe shaped area that contains subduction zones that create megathrust earthquakes and generate tsunamis. The second application uses a 2-D seismo-thermo-mechanical model simulating long term subduction dynamics and seismic cycles to initialize the 3-D dynamic earthquake rupture model (Fig. Fig. Rupture velocity remains subshear relative to the 4.3 km s–1 S-wave speed in the surrounding material along most of the fault during the blind rupture, but transitions locally to supershear speed up-dip from the nucleation location and along the upper part of the fault in the surface-breaching rupture. Goda et al. Keywords Tsunami sources Cascadia subduction zone Megathrust earthquakes Splay- faulting rupture Trench-breaching rupture Dislocation modelling & Kelin Wang It solves the depth-integrated (hydrostatic) non-linear shallow water equations (e.g. In the dynamic earthquake models used in scenarios A and B (Section 3.1), 400 m element edge lengths on the fault are combined with polynomial degree p = 5 (spatio-temporal order of accuracy of 6) leading to an effective numerical discretization distinctively higher. This type of earthquake is more devastating than others because the tsunami caused major meltdown of nuclear power plants. We here use 3-D dynamic rupture models as tsunami sources by building a virtual laboratory using open-source earthquake and tsunami computational models. This event is chosen late in the simulation time of the seismic cycling, to ensure that the change of time step has no lasting effect on the slip events. webinars, past event materials. That record goes to the 2004 Banda Aceh earthquake and tsunami in Sumatra, a magnitude-9.1, which killed more than 230,000 people. Occurred at a subduction zone where one plate was thrust over another. Similarly, we here restrict the off-fault constitutive behaviour of the earthquake physical models to purely elastic and use a linear slip weakening friction law on-fault. Linked parameters of the subduction model fault are available at 649 locations and the slice through the earthquake model fault allows initializing 849 fault locations. Keywords: stochastic tsunami simulation, earthquake source modeling, uncertainty and sensitivity of tsunami hazard, sunda megathrust, West sumatra. The resulting earthquake model includes a curved fault geometry and heterogeneous material properties and stress field, and the frictional parameters along the fault vary with depth. Here, we present and explore a virtual laboratory in which the tsunami source arises from 3-D coseismic seafloor displacements generated by a dynamic earthquake rupture model. 6, the (filtered) source displacements of the blind rupture in Scenario A produce a smooth wave while those in Scenario B produces more abrupt initial displacements of the water column, as discussed in Section 5.1. 2009; DeDontney & Rice 2011). However, what the initial conditions in the subduction-initialized earthquake in Section 4 reveal are shear traction and static friction depth profiles that vary with both depth and material, with the most obvious change from sediments to oceanic crust at approximately 28 km depth (Fig. (2018). At t = 1200 s, just before first inundation in both scenarios, the heights of the peaks nearest the beach are more similar (Fig. 2015; Ando & Kaneko 2018; Klinger et al. LeVeque et al. At y = 0, the time-independent source again over predicts the peak wave height (Fig. 7g) or from the time-dependent versus time-independent sources in Scenario B (Fig. If the fault location is in a velocity weakening region, we assign |$\mu _{d}^{\prime }$| to equal the minimum value effective friction reached at that location during the entire subduction slip event. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Kozdon & Dunham 2013; Ramos & Huang 2019; Ulrich et al. A4) and BayLat, by KONWIHR – the Bavarian Competence Network for Technical and Scientific High Performance Computing (project NewWave), by KAUST-CRG (GAST, grant no. The sticky air approximation, common in geodynamic modelling where topography develops, mimics an internal free surface, as low density, low viscosity ‘sticky air’ material is decoupled from the underlying rocks (Schmeling et al. 2009), which impedes megathrust hazard assessment and mitigation. Heidarzadeh et al. Black lines in (b) and (c) outline the fault. The tsunami physical model in Scenario C is the same as that used in Section 3.2, but its spatial dimensions are adjusted to the larger earthquake model. Coupled feedback mechanisms beyond one-way linking from earthquake to tsunami also may be analysed in future work. With hmax is taken near the source at t = 100 s, ϵC = 0.7, which matches the efficiency of the blind earthquake rupture in Scenario A. Furthermore, this ensures compatibility of those conditions, i.e., with long term subduction and seismic cycling, as shown here, as well as with splay faulting in the accretionary wedge (van Dinther et al. 2011; Hüpers et al. 2017; Wolf et al. It includes two scenarios: one with high strength on the shallow fault leading to a blind rupture, and one with low strength on the shallow fault leading to a surface-breaching rupture. For the applications presented in Sections 3 and 4, the average water depth is 2000 m, thus, the maximum wave propagation speed is approximately 140 m s–1. 2020; Preuss et al. Vancouver Island is part of the North American plate. According to Atwater, the simplest explanation for this unique sand layer is a tsunami from an earthquake in which a tectonic plate, in a seismic shift, abruptly displaced the sea while lowering the adjoining coast. Japan earthquake and tsunami, severe natural disaster that occurred in northeastern Japan on March 11, 2011, and killed at least 20,000 people. We end with a look forward. 2016) as done by Allgeyer & Cummins (2014) and Jamelot et al. The simple example links a rupture propagating across a gently dipping, planar fault surrounded by homogeneous, purely elastic media and an isotropic stress field. In Scenario C, the width of the inundation corridor is underpredicted at all distances from the coast. For example, output from the subduction model is used to set the initial conditions for the earthquake model. \end{eqnarray}$$. 10e), such constrained Dc varies with depth. As an earthquake source, Saito et al. Based on their magnitudes (Mw 8.5–8.6), fault area (125 km by 200 km), and slip distributions, the two earthquakes scenarios are comparable to tsunami-generating subduction zone events such as the Mw 8.5 Bengkulu earthquake that occurred off the southwestern coast of Sumatra in 2007 (Gusman et al. Inundation maps for both scenarios are shown in Figs 7(a) and (b). (2017a) concludes, the deep insight gained from this narrow study of three earthquake initial conditions on earthquake and tsunami behaviour in 2-D underscores the need for more investigation into the influence of complex earthquake dynamics on tsunamis. C1). The width of the inundated corridor inland from the coast and the timing of inundation do differ between scenarios, however, reflecting differences in timing in displacement of the water mass and in the magnitude of water displaced. seismological community and general public A dislocation model may be taken from a finite fault model constrained by data inversion (e.g. Both the geodynamics and seismic cycling phases of the subduction model and the definition of a slip event are described in Appendix C. The workflow for linking subduction to a 3-D earthquake model is detailed here, which expands the approach for a 2-D earthquake presented in van Zelst et al. 2). ADER is an explicit time-stepping method that achieves the same approximation order in space and time, but without requiring multiple stages for high discretization order, as in, for example Runge–Kutta schemes. Future modelling can also strive to quantify differences of the same orders of magnitude attributed to other dynamic earthquake and tsunami characteristics. to the operation of science facilities for the acquisition, A2). In other characteristics, the two scenarios respond in a similar way to this change in source. In addition, the material properties, stress state and friction coefficients from the 2-D slip event are extended into the third dimension in the earthquake model. These seismic surface waves feature large transient amplitudes of up to 1 m, which is of the same order as the static uplift at the end of the earthquake models. They discovered the area experienced two ‘megathrust’ earthquakes over the past 1,000 years, which occurred beneath Cook Strait, the New Zealand Herald said. These tsunami models use more or less sophisticated approximations to the earthquake induced uplift as initial conditions (for a review see e.g. Here, we present methods to harness the potential of complex, 3-D dynamic rupture models as tsunami sources to enable direct studies of how earthquake initial conditions and earthquake dynamics affect tsunami genesis, propagation and inundation. 2008,see Appendix A2). Failure analysis according to the earthquake model failure criterion (eq. Earthquake model results. We also appreciate the collegial reviews from Joao Duarte, Brittany Erickson, Duncan Agnew and one anonymous reviewer. Megathrust earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis that originate in subduction zones like Cascadia — Vancouver Island, Canada, to northern California — are some of the most severe natural disasters in the world. We predefine 3-D a nucleating patch here in the earthquake model centred at x = 267 km, y = 0 km andz = −41.5 km and with a radius of 1.3 km. 2c) over the slip weakening distance Dc = 0.5 m (Fig. Stochastic models of seismogenic tsunami generation (e.g. Recent lower resolution scenarios require 4 hr on 5000 Sandy Bridge cores of the supercomputer SuperMucNG (Ulrich et al. Scenario B (surface-breaching rupture): (d) accumulated slip, (e) vertical surface displacements at 56 s (time of maximum uplift) and (f) final vertical displacements. We provide all necessary information and data sets required to reproduce the results presented in this work at https://tinyurl.com/yxn6zrqc. The three-dimensional isotropic case, Earthquake ruptures with strongly rate-weakening friction and off-fault plasticity. For the surface-breaching rupture source, using the time-dependent displacements also overpredicts run-up. The earthquake simulation software SeisSol (www.seissol.org) is publicly available as open source software at https://github.com/SeisSol/SeisSol. (b) Material properties. (2014) highlight strong sensitivity of tsunami wave heights to site location and slip characteristics, and also to variations in dip, in stochastic random-field slip models for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. 2010). Linearly varying or constant stress with depth is often incorporated into dynamic rupture models (e.g. Seismic surface waves in the earthquake rupture models are much faster, approaching approximately 2500 m s–1. SEATTLE — January 26, 1700 is when an estimated magnitude 9.0 megathrust earthquake and tsunami occurred on the Cascadia Subduction Zone off the coastline of Washington, Oregon, Northern California, and British Columbia. 2019a; Wollherr et al. 2019). In the 2001 South Peru earthquake, high slip may have occurred at shallow depths, though whether or not slip occurred at the trench is inconclusive (Pritchard et al. This megathrust earthquake also triggered a devastating tsunami that caused damage along the Gulf of Alaska, the West Coast of the United States, and in Hawaii. 2020), both of which are at the scale of the modelled differences between tsunamis in Scenarios A and B. Scenario C’s magnitude and the model fault dimensions are similar to those for the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku megathrust earthquake. These types of differences, shown here in generic models, may be challenging to distinguish from field data, for which regional and data-driven adjustment of the scenarios may be required. Most people don't associate the US Pacific Northwest with earthquakes, but maybe they should. Documentation how to compile and use SeisSol is provided at https://seissol.readthedocs.io/. Maximum run-up is increased in particular. However, recent 3-D earthquake-tsunami models of the 2004 Sumatra earthquake reveal the sensitive trade-off between shallow fault slip and off-fault elastoplastic deformation in controlling the tsunami height (Ulrich et al. Subduction zone earthquakes can trigger devastating tsunamis, such as the 2004 Sumatra, 2010 Maule and 2011 Tohoku earthquake-tsunami sequences. 5c). Again, isolated exceeding of the failure criterion in the earthquake model leads to rupture nucleation here. ASAGI organizes Cartesian data sets as a collection of tiles. Using purely tsunami based observations and linked models, for example of historical megathrust events, distinguishing between possible blind or surface rupturing earthquakes may be feasible. After 3.6 Myr, a sufficiently steady-state subduction geometry has developed, suitable for a seismic cycle. FIGURE 6. The stepwise inundation distribution reflects the spatial mesh discretisation near the coast. Inside the patch we assign |$\mu _{s}^{\prime } = 0.019$|, equal to the minimum value of |$\mu _{s}^{\prime }$| in the subduction model inside this nucleating region. This filtering approach is further discussed in Section 5.1. We find, as may be expected, that temporal differences are larger than spatial differences. In future work, these applications may also be useful for community-wide comparison of dynamic earthquake-tsunami modelling approaches and alternative linking methods. 2012). b(x,y) = \left\lbrace \begin{array}{@{}l@{\quad }l@{}}0.05\, (x-x_0) & \text{for } x \gt x_0 \\ 2015, 2019). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Petascale local time stepping for the ADER-DG finite element method, Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE International Parallel & Distributed Processing Symposium, How sediment thickness influences subduction dynamics and seismicity, Seismic imaging of forearc backthrusts at northern Sumatra subduction zone, The Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method for conservation laws V: multidimensional systems, A comparison of numerical surface topography calculations in geodynamic modelling: an evaluation of the ‘sticky air’ method, Tectonics and seismicity in the northern Apennines driven by slab retreat and lithospheric delamination, Bimodal seismicity in the Himalaya controlled by fault friction and geometry, Tsunami variability from uncalibrated stochastic earthquake models: tests against deep ocean observations 2006–2016, Comparison of finite difference and boundary integral solutions to three-dimensional spontaneous rupture, Dynamic rupture modeling on unstructured meshes using a discontinuous Galerkin method, Tsunami wave analysis and possibility of splay fault rupture during the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake, Three-dimensional dynamic rupture simulations across interacting faults: the, An arbitrary high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for elastic waves on unstructured meshes - II. 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Du terrain inégal qui est le résultat du déplacement du sol à l'élévation opposée both subduction dynamics and long behaviour! Cpus ( Breuer et al ( megathrust earthquake tsunami La Puente et al than are provided the.

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